JVC's parent corporation, Matsushita, later met with RCA and agreed to manufacture a four-hour-capable VHS machine for RCA.[8]. At a later meeting, Matsushita, with JVC management in attendance, showed Sony a VHS prototype, and advised them it was not too late to embrace VHS "for the good of the industry" but Sony management felt it was too close to Betamax production to compromise. [19], The video recording market was an unknown when VCRs first came on the market; as such, Sony and JVC were both developing technologies that were unproven. Super VHS offered up to 420 lines horizontal (in modern digital terms, 560 pixels edge-to-edge), which surpassed broadcast-quality and matched the quality of laserdiscs in this one parameter. Unlike VHS vcrs, which have dropped almost to zero value second hand, used Betamaxes still fetch strong prices. Sony was the only manufacturer of Betamax initially, and so was not pressured to reduce prices. Sony began to assemble and market its first VHS machines, models SLV-50 and SLV-70HF, with VHS chassis mechanism purchased from Hitachi, initially. A minor skirmish arose over DIVX, but it died a quick death. It was clear that the Beta format was dead - at least in Europe and North America. Of course, both Betamax and VHS were eventually made obsolete by digital technology. The term “Betacam” can refer to a Betacam video recorder, camcorder, or tape; or the Betacam format itself. None of these disc formats gained much ground as none was capable of home recording; however, they did hold small niche markets. The war was over by the late 1980s, although supporters of Betamax have helped keep the format going in a small niche market. One more issue is worthy of note—pornography. Sony's decision in 1975 to limit Betamax's maximum recording time to one hour (for NTSC systems) handicapped its chances of winning this marketing war. They were two mechanically and electrically different formats, with no simple way to use one mechanism to read the other’s tape. The Betamax vs VHS Format War Sony's Betamax video standard was introduced in 1975, followed a year later by JVC's VHS. Betamax eventually achieved 5 hours at Beta-III speed on an ultra-thin L-830 cassette, and VHS ultimately squeezed 10-and-a-half hours with SLP/EP speed on a T-210 cassette (or 12 hours on DVHS's T-240s). Sony's Betamax video standard was introduced in 1975, followed a year later by JVC's VHS. By 1984, while the Beta group numbered only a dozen firms, the VHS group included 40 companies, among them Grundig, Hitachi, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Philips, RCA, and Sharp, some of the biggest manufacturers in Japan, Europe, and the US. Sony's founder, Akio Morita, claimed that licensing problems between Sony and other companies slowed the growth of Betamax and allowed VHS to become established. For forty years JVC dominated the home market with its VHS, Super VHS and VHS-Compact formats, and collected billions in royalty payments. Sony believed that having better quality recordings was the key to success, and that consumers would be willing to pay a higher retail price for this, whereas it soon became clear that consumer desire was focused more intently on recording time, lower retail price, compatibility with other machines for sharing (as VHS was becoming the format in the majority of homes), brand loyalty to companies who licensed VHS (RCA, Magnavox, Zenith, Quasar, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Hitachi, Sharp, even JVC itself, etc. On the other hand, VHS tapes allowed people to record for two hours. While the two technologies used a 1/2-inch videotape width, the machines wrapped the tape differently around the drum head located inside the machine. Standard Betamax tapes lasted 60 minutes — not long enough to record a movie. It is arguable how this situation came to be, but once it happened, there was no turning back. What Sony did not take into account was what consumers wanted. remove. Fan safety is our priority. They both were much worse than broadcast TV. vhs対ベータマックス. [13][14] In 1988, Videofax magazine declared that Beta had lost the format war after Sony agreed to start adding VHS to the company's VCR lineup. VHS OR BETA added an album Apr 30, 2015 at 06:36 AM. In any case, manufacturers divided themselves into two camps: On the Betamax side were Sony, Toshiba, Sanyo, NEC, Aiwa, and Pioneer. Partially this is due to Beta still having a rabid "cult" following that prefers to play the actual tapes instead of DVD copies, and partially this is due to them being scarce compared to VHS … Bitter Betamax owners cringed in their ever-decreasing corner of the video store while VHS owners gloated. Many VHS tapes are worth 50 cents to a few dollars, though collectible tapes can sell for up to $50 or more. For around a decade the two standards battled for dominance, with VHS eventually emerging as the winner. And then watch the VHS. In PAL regions, the L-750 Betamax tape lasted 3 hours and 15 minutes, while VHS was limited to a 3-hour maximum (the E-180), though later on an E-240 tape lasting four hours became available. [10][11] By 1981, sales of Beta machines in the United States had sunk to 25% of the VCR market. Video Tape Transfer Service, Digitization to MP4 (VHS, VHS-C, Hi8, Video 8, Digital8, 8mm, MiniDV, Beta, Audio) - New Customer Offer 4.7 out of 5 stars 393 $14.91 $ 14 . VHS and Beta both reduce the luma resolution somewhat, but reduce chroma resolution drastically. The victory was not due to any technical superiority (Betamax is arguably a better format), but to several factors. VHS won because "the whole product" did what people wanted at a price they were willing to pay. [6] Both had previously cooperated in the development and marketing of the U-Matic video cassette format. The victory was not due to any technical superiority (Betamax is arguably a better format), but to several factors. That’s abrupt and will wear out the mechanism. Although Betamax initially owned 100% of the market in 1975 (as VHS did not launch until the following year) the perceived value of longer recording times eventually tipped the balance in favor of VHS. In Japan, Betamax had more success, but VHS was still the market leader. [citation needed], Soon after, RCA met with executives at the Victor Corporation of Japan (JVC), who had created their own video format called "VHS" (which stood for "Video Home System"[7]). Betamax (also called Beta, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette format of magnetic tape for video. RCA had discussions with Sony, but RCA felt the recording time was too short, insisting that they needed at least a 4-hour recording time (reportedly because that was the length of an average televised American football game). quote: Take a look at the chroma from a VHS capture and you will know what I mean. [citation needed], Another improvement would be SuperBeta (sometimes called High Band Beta) in 1985. The first Betamax device introduced in the United States was the LV-1901 console, which included a 19-inch (48 cm) color monitor, and appeared in stores in early November 1975. CED's inexpensive[3] record-like format (using a fine keel-shaped stylus to read an electronic signal rather than mechanical vibrations) made it attractive to low-income families during the 1980s, and LaserDisc's 5 megahertz/420 line resolution made it popular with discerning videophiles until circa 1997 (when DVD-Video became the new standard for high-quality). In researching this article I was unable to find any substantiated evidence that pornography sales significantly influenced the outcome of the war. It was a competitor of VHS and has many benefits that film buffs and collectors like. Estamos en los años 70. Both had previously cooperated in the development and marketing of the U-Matic video cassette format. Note how smooth it is. Filmmakers on VHS Vs. The commonly-held belief is that the technically superior Betamax was beaten by VHS through slick marketing. Like … Here are some real-world videotape values. As movie studios, video studios, and video rental stores turned away from Betamax, the combination of lower market share and a lack of available titles further strengthened VHS's position. By 1983, a VHS VCR sold for about $439 while a Beta VCR cost $489, and the VHS tapes cost $1 less too. The cassettes contain 0.50-inch-wide (12.7 mm) videotape in a design similar to that of the earlier, professional 0.75-inch-wide (19 mm), U-matic For consumers, the most immediately obvious difference between the two formats was the recording length. When Betamax hit the market, its tapes could record only an hour’s worth of programming. VHS OR BETA. Later, VHS made it possible to record for 4-6 hours. 家庭用ビデオレコーダーの規格争いとしては、もっとも有名な事例であり、単に「ビデオ戦争」といえば『vhsとベータマックスのデファクトスタンダード戦争』を指すことがほとんどである。. Sony did adapt and offer various solutions for longer recording, but it was too late. JVC, which designed the VHS technology, licensed it to any manufacturer that was interested. RCA would go on to market "four hours, $999", forcing a price war and also a "tape length" war. Apart from this, to keep costs down, many of its unique features, such as Dynamic Track Following, were only implemented on the most expensive models, meaning that mainstream models suffered from indifferent video quality. In parts of South America and in Japan Beta continued to be popular, and machines were still in production up to the end of 2002. As a result of the desire to enter the marketplace faster, the firms both spent less time on research and development and tried to save money by picking a version of the technology they thought would do best without exploring the full gamut of options. Video Tape Transfer Service, Digitization to MP4 (VHS, VHS-C, Hi8, Video 8, Digital8, 8mm, MiniDV, Beta, Audio) - New Customer Offer 4.7 out of 5 stars 393 $14.91 $ 14 . However, these differences were negligible to consumers, and thus did not justify either the extra cost of a Betamax VCR (which was often significantly more expensive than a VHS equivalent) or Betamax's shorter recording time. Usage is subject to. Sony seemed to have misjudged the home video market. By the time Betamax machines became easier to rent, VHS had already claimed 70% of the market. This battle continued through much of the 1980s until VHS eventually made a technological breakthrough enabling them to beat out Beta and ultimately dominate the VCR formatting standard. Betamax tapes can sell for up to $20 or more. Link below “Oh nooo! Sony had met with Matsushitaexecutives in late 1974/ early 1975 to discuss the forthcoming home video market. Pero era una amenaza controlable. 91 However, U-matic was primarily a professional standard with constant surveillance by television technicians and which did not need more than one hour length per tape. This helped the decks become the go-to format for recording and watching movies. The issue of recording time is often cited as the most defining factor in the war. "Electronic Servicing & Technology" magazine, May 1982. [9] The extension of VHS to VHS HQ increased the apparent resolution to 250 lines, so that overall a Betamax/VHS user could expect virtually identical luma resolution and chroma resolution (≈30 lines), wherein the actual picture performance depended on other factors, including the condition and quality of the videotape and the specific video recorder machine model. Las productoras cinematog… VHS ultimately emerged as the preeminent format.[1]. V2000 was cancelled in 1985, the first casualty of the format war. Despite claims that Sony was still backing Beta, Sony also had good success with VHS by the mid-1990s. But JVC in particular decided to go with its own format,[2] despite Sony's appeal to the Japanese Ministry of Trade and Industry, thus beginning the format war. JVC's VHS could manage 120 minutes, followed by RCA's entrance into the market with a 240-minute recorder using VHS. This was quickly followed by the competing VHS format from JVC, and later by Video 2000 from Philips. Betamax is, in theory, a superior recording format over VHS due to resolution (250 lines vs. 240 lines), slightly superior sound, and a more stable image; Betamax recorders were also of higher-quality construction. For most consumers the difference as seen on the average television of the time was negligible. The Betacam format emerged as an improvement to the three-quarter-inch U-Matic format by Sony. It was not until the late 1970s that Betamax offered recording times comparable to VHS. On the VHS side were JVC, Matsushita (Panasonic), Hitachi, Mitsubishi, Sharp, and Akai. ", "IEEE History Center: Development of VHS", "1977 – Corporate History – History – About Us – Panasonic", "The Rapid Evolution of the Consumer Camcorder", "Sony finally decides it's time to kill Betamax", https://www.wired.com/2010/06/0604vhs-ces/, http://theconversation.com/the-end-of-sonys-betamax-video-tape-but-the-format-wars-continue-in-a-digital-world-50589, http://www.betainfoguide.net/RiseandFall.htm, "Choosing How to Compete: Strategies and Tactics in Standardization", "Toshiba Announces Discontinuation of HD DVD Businesses", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Videotape_format_war&oldid=992967569, Articles needing additional references from April 2008, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 02:24. Betamax was a video cassette format introduced by the Sony Corporation in 1975. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Comparison of high-definition optical disc formats, "The Betamax vs VHS Format War, Author: Dave Owen, Originally published: 2005", "Betamax Didn't Lose To VHS Because Of Adult Films", "history - VHS vs Betamax: How influential was the pornography industry in the format war? While Betamax was believed to be the superior format in the minds of the public and press (due to excellent marketing by Sony), consumers wanted an affordable VCR (a VHS often cost hundreds of dollars less than a Betamax);[17] Korean electronic manufacturers, such as Samsung and GoldStar (now LG Electronics), responded to Funai, Shintom, and Orion Electric for the availability of video cassette players (VCP) to movie rental stores, by offering first VHS VCR recorder prices down to under $300 by year 1986. It has also been reported that Sony inadvertently gave its competitors a helping hand by revealing key aspects of Betamax technology which were then incorporated into VHS. In order to overcome technical difficulties, the engineers at Sony developed a “dense” recording system (thus its name, Betamax, from the Japanese word ‘beta’, meaning thick, dense.) Sony had demonstrated a prototype videotape recording system it called "Beta" to the other electronics manufacturers in 1974, and expected that they would back a single format for the good of all. First, the VHS was lighter than the Betamax: 29 and a half lbs compared to 36 lbs for the this Betamax machine. [citation needed]. U-matic was designed for commercial or professional television production use, and was not affordable or user-friendly for home videos or home movies. [citation needed], Within continental Europe there were three choices by 1980, with the arrival of the Video 2000 format from Philips and Grundig that replaced Philips' outdated "VCR" format. By 1987, VHS accounted for 90% of the VCR market in the United States. Exactly how and why VHS won the war has been the subject of intense debate. [citation needed]. In the early 1980s, the world was engaged in a heated debate over which video tape format was superior: Betamax or VHS. In fact the truth is more complex and there were a number of reasons for the outcome. Subsequently, the Betamax–VHS format war began in earnest. remove. [citation needed], In the mid-to-late 1980s, both formats were extended to Super Betamax and Super VHS. … 0 Comment Share You Got Me VHS OR BETA. [15], Both Betamax and VHS were supplanted by higher-quality video available from laser-based technology. The first consumer-grade VCR to be released was the Philips N1500 VCR format in 1972, followed in 1975 by Sony's Betamax. It is certainly true that VHS machines were initially much simpler and cheaper to manufacture, which would obviously be an attraction to companies deciding which standard to back. Sony engineers knew that the technology available to manufacture video heads was not up to the task yet, but halving the tape speed and track width was a possibility. At some point and for some reason the choice of rental movies on VHS became better than Betamax. The first video cassette recorder (VCR) to become available was the U-matic system, released in September 1971. A year later, JVC launches its alternative video format, the VHS (Video Home System.) But JVC also refused to compromise the picture quality of their format by allowing a four-hour mode. Despite the failure of Betamax, its technological successor the Betacam tape and its successor Digital Betacam (shortened to Digibeta) would become industry standard for video recording, production and presentation. And there was no adapter available to buy to play the Beta tape in the larger slots of the VHS machines. SXSW: 'Rewind This!' A later format war resulted from a failure to agree on a single standard for DVD's high-definition successor (HD DVD) in May 2005. There is a claim that adult content was not available on Betamax (possibly because Sony would not allow it) while it was becoming readily available on VHS. The Formatting War: VHS vs. Betamax. [18] In addition, Sony, being the first producer to offer its technology, also thought it would establish Betamax as the leading format. When you mention “Format War”, most will remember the battle between Sony’s Betamax videotapes and JVC’s VHS. 家庭用ビデオの最初期には、カセット収納型規格として Production ramped up by 1990 using Sony's own VHS VCR mechanism, responding to consumer's increasing demand for first-purchase Hi-Fi stereo units and flying-erase-head editing models. Betamax's longest tape (L-830) could record for 3 hours and 35 minutes, compared to VHS's 4 hours. While VHS machines' lower retail price was a major factor, the principal battleground proved to be recording time. Beta started with one hour, VHS was up to four hours. Manufacturers also introduced other systems such as needle-based, record-style discs (RCA's Capacitance Electronic Disc, JVC's Video High Density disc) and optical discs (Philips' LaserDisc). For the European markets the issue was one of cost, since VHS had already gained dominance in the United States (70% of the market), and the large economy of scale allowed VHS units to be sold at a far lower cost than the rarer Betamax units. Las audiencias de TV son colosales y unos pocos canales se reparten los beneficios proporcionados por la publicidad a cambio de emitir contenidos: noticieros, programas de entretenimiento y películas. Ripping the actual videos from old 8mm, VHS, and even Beta tapes takes just a couple of clicks as you launch playback on the VCR and keep the program running in the background so it’s capturing the video. VHS machines were available through the high street rental chains such as Radio Rentals and DER (subsidiaries of Thorn-EMI, which also owned Ferguson Electronics, which marketed JVC-sourced VHS recorders), while Beta was seen as the more upmarket choice for people who wanted quality and were prepared to pay for it. En esta época, la industria del cine era la gran amenazada por el éxito de la TV. Simply put, you don’t. [20], By 1988, Beta format was officially declared dead without any more new models released. The machines were also found to be less reliable than their VHS and Beta counterparts, and for all these reasons the format never gained substantial market share. 0 Comment Share Le Funk VHS OR BETA. Betamax (or simply "Beta") is a consumer-level video cassette recorder (VCR) developed by Sony in Japan and released in 1975. [citation needed], When home VCRs started to become popular in the UK, the main issue was one of availability and price. TITLE. You can support this channel on Patreon! Beta sales dwindled away and VHS emerged as the winner of the format war. Lower tape speeds meant a degradation in picture quality, as adjacent video bands created "crosstalk" and noise in the decoded picture. 1975 Beta enters market - 250 lines vs 240 VHS, lower video noise, less luma/chroma crosstalk -- Advantage: Beta Beta releases 2hr mode tape to compete with VHS SP -- lowers resolution to 240 lines to do so -- Advantage: all even VHS comes out with VHS HQ - puts resolution at 250 lines -- Advantage: VHS (better resolution, longer tape) [4][5], Sony had met with Matsushita executives in late 1974/ early 1975 to discuss the forthcoming home video market. It was developed by Sony and was released in Japan on May 10, 1975. Other competitors, such as the Avco Cartrivision, Sanyo's V-Cord and Matsushita's "Great Time Machine" quickly disappeared. For your event’s refund or credit eligibility visit your account or learn more about options for canceled, rescheduled and postponed events. 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