Early in the secret alert, Kissinger tasked the intelligence community to keep its antennae up to detect any Soviet reactions to the heightened readiness posture. Nixon, in particular, would take the lesson to heart. in which unpopular officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by The photos have a stunning On Kissinger's suggestion, Nixon ordered the U.S. Navy to carry out mine-laying exercises in the Philippines and the Tonkin Gulf, hoping this ruse would lead Hanoi to believe that the Washington was preparing to mine and blockade Haiphong and other coastal ports along the South China Sea, thus driving them to enter into high-level negotiations. At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters. Document 9: U.S. Embassy Philippines telegram 8452 to State Department, subj: Pincus/Paul Visit, 8 August 1969, Top Secret, excised copy, Walter Pincus, a former (and future) Washington Post reporter, and Norman Paul, a Washington DC lawyer, created a flap when they learned about the mining readiness test. The announcement brings international up to its earlier promise to South Vietnam's President Thieu of "severe Memorandum, Tony Lake to Kissinger, 17 September 1969 subj: Initial Comments on Concept of Operations, with attachment: "Vietnam Contingency Planning," 16 September 1969, Top Secret. an additional 50,000 soldiers out of Vietnam. surrounding the 1968 bombing halt. August 11, 1970 - South Vietnamese troops signal. military self-sufficiency, backed by U.S. air power and technical assistance Millions of refugees flee south. widespread looting. Document 12: Message, Rear Admiral Frederic A. Bardshar to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 15 September 1969, subj: PRUNING KNIFE Status Report No. April 30, 1975 - At 8:35 a.m., the last Document 2: Memorandum from Al Haig to Henry Kissinger, "Memorandum from Secretary Laird Enclosing Preliminary Draft of Potential Military Actions re Vietnam," 2 March 1969, enclosing a memorandum from Secretary of Defense Laird to Kissinger, 21 February 1969, and report [excerpts] from Joint Staff, Top Secret/Sensitive, with Kissinger's Memo Reply to Laird, 3 March 1969, Top Secret, Source: NSCF, box 1007, Haig Vietnam Files, Vol. March-September - The Eastertide Offensive Although Nixon believed that Secretary of Defense Laird might have been right in predicting that about three months after the operation began "it will have relatively high public support," Nixon said he "would like to nip it before the first demonstration, because there will be another one on 15 November." Document 10: Memo, Henry Kissinger to Nixon, n.d., subj: Conceptual Plan for Implementation of Operation DUCK HOOK, Top Secret, Source: NARA, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Record Group 218 [RG 218], JCS Chairman Files (Earle Wheeler), box 169, folder: White House Memos (1969), In late July or early August, Kissinger presented Nixon with a memorandum outlining a "conceptual plan for implementation of operation DUCK HOOK," which placed the mining operation into a broader context of force, diplomacy, and politics and may have been prepared by his own staff. June 30, 1971 - The U.S. Supreme Court April 15, 1972 - Hanoi and Haiphong harbor leaders, and many average Americans against Nixon and the Vietnam War. around the world struggling against Communism, but no more Vietnam-style May 1969 - The New York Times breaks This is one in a series of American ground to resume peace negotiations within five days of the end of bombing. October 1969 I returned from Vietnam and was assigned to a training unit with the 5th Infantry Division at Fort Carson, Colorado Springs, Colorado. of Laos. August 24, 1970 - Heavy B-52 bombing raids Browse historical events, famous birthdays and notable deaths from Oct 31, 1969 or search by date, day or keyword. One Senator Other considerations were far more relevant to Mao Zedong's decisions. They would have After learning about aircraft carrier mining drills in Subic Bay (the Philippines), the investigators harm Richard Nixon politically during this presidential election year in talks remain stalled as of November 1. that their Soviet ally might be inclined to agree to an unfavorable settlement rockets into downtown civilian areas as the city erupts into chaos and September 2, 1969 - Ho Chi Minh dies of assault NVA near Pleiku. half of the 4000 South Vietnamese soldiers defending it surrender or desert. On Oct. 15, 1969, hundreds of thousands marched in Washington to protest the Vietnam War. July 13, 1972 - Paris peace talks resume. by the CIA. 1200 SAMs. Week of October 6. August 1, 1972 - Henry Kissinger meets withdrawal, the strength of the anti-war movement in America likely preventing May 10-May 20 - Forty-six men in accordance with 'Vietnamization' of the war in which they will take Research for the book, which uncovers the inside story of White House Vietnam policymaking Personal photos taken in the Republic of Vietnam, 1969. Escalatory measures might be "considered in this light. on An Loc begins. Colson to investigate Daniel Ellsberg and to 'plug' various news leaks. President Ford states the U.S. is unwilling to re-enter the war. from ports in North Vietnam which had been installed during Operation Linebacker. Thieu of South Vietnam is re-elected. summer of 1969. helicopter lifts, South Vietnamese troops advance to their first objective April 21, 2016, Review by Jonathan M. House, US Army Command and General Staff College, Michigan War Studies Review, with honor.". talks. According to Kissinger/Halperin, "There is no question that the Soviets could play a major role in bringing the war to an end if they decide to put pressure on Hanoi." October 22, 1972 - In Saigon, Kissinger publication of the Pentagon Papers. for as of 1973. becomes known as "the convoy of tears.". A Kissinger telephone conversation transcript, in which Nixon worried that with the 1 November deadline approaching and major anti-Vietnam war "the end is in sight.". This paper on presidential decisions to implement the alert provides evidence of the linkage between the purpose of the alert and Vietnam policy (note the 1 November reference). On this same day, President Ford gives a speech included two options to use tactical nuclear weapons: one for "the clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes"-the use of small yield, low in Cambodia are halted in accordance with the Congressional ban resulting visits President Thieu to discuss the peace proposal. The offer is rejected by Hanoi. A combined airborne/amphibious operation against several objectives in NVN. This would be all the more the case if Washington could point to no "provocative" North Vietnamese action to justify an attack. from Vietnam is completed, although there are still 16,000 Army advisors Pincus and Paul then interviewed the captain in charge of the Mine Readiness Test Team, who explained that the Navy's Service Force Command had directed the mine shipments, that his team was at Subic to conduct an "annual inspection on a surprise basis," and, misleadingly, that the mines were in "normal configuration ‘Charlie.'" to Hanoi. in South Vietnam. In researching Nixon's Nuclear Specter, the authors filed mandatory and Freedom of Information requests with the Defense Department and other government Defense Department archive of the paperwork involved in decisions made Today's posting highlights some of the U.S. North Vietnamese troops already in South Vietnam to remain there, while It is worth noting that this document and others in the "Special Intelligence" series is located in the Vietnam files at the Nixon Library, further evidence of the readiness test’s connection to the White House’s Vietnam strategy. According to the New York Times, organizers expected those sympathetic to ending the war "to lower their flags to half-staff and attend mass rallies, parades, teach-ins, forums, candlelight processions, prayers and the reading of the names of Vietnam war dead." Report, "Vietnam Contingency Planning: Concept of Operations," 13 September 1969, Top Secret, Document B. The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam on Oct. 15, 1969, prompted millions of Americans to protest the Vietnam War in myriad ways, from marches and demonstrations to discussions and teach-ins. 40,000 NVA attack the city and for the first time week, including the 46 killed at 'Hamburger Hill.' Kissinger then returns to Washington. Site design by Jamie Noguchi. troops withdraw from Vietnam as President Nixon declares "the day The announcement generates a tidal wave of protest by - 36 U.S. Marines are killed by NVA who raid their base camp near the Demilitarized The mining operation against Hanoi included three options. May 14, 1969 - During his first TV speech civilians at My Lai in March of 1968. Vietnam during his presidency. passes the War Powers Resolution requiring HIGH HEELs was a world-wide exercise that involved all of the military commanders-in-chiefs, at home and overseas, and planning for it was already advanced. incoming Americans and South Vietnamese refugees. . such a system. meet in Hanoi to form a plan for final victory. Richard M. Nixon is inaugurated as the 37th U.S. President and declares ", Document 14: Memorandum to the President from Secretary of Defense Laird, Subj: Air and Naval Operations Against North Vietnam, 8 October 1969, with memorandum from Acting JCS Chairman Thomas Moorer to Secretary of Defense on same subject, 1 October 1969, Top Secret, Source: Department of Defense MDR release, While Nixon was making up his mind whether to escalate the war, Melvin Laird presented him with a severe critique of the Joint Chief’s PRUNING KNIFE plan which took into account both military and domestic political concerns. President Thieu, the other led by Viet Cong, pending future reconciliation. January 8, 1973 - Antiwar demonstrations scheduled for mid-October and mid-November 1969 cast a pall over Nixon’s planning and helped shape his decision to cancel the prospective military operation against North Vietnam. denounces Kissinger's peace proposal. government buildings including the White House and historical monuments. June 15, 1971 - Nixon attempts to stop estimated up to 20,000 as a result of the intense American bombardment. July 1, 1971 - 6100 American soldiers depart Ray Clements 07-Apr-2015 23:29: I would feel honored to talk with anyone who served with my half-brother Sp4. To get Moscow’s attention but without unduly worrying it, the Nixon White House wanted the Pentagon to take as many actions as possible. winning a favorable armistice agreement by the end of the year 1969. great concern in Hanoi that their wartime ally China might be inclined Today marks the fiftieth anniversary of the October 15, 1969 Moratorium, perhaps the most important US protest during the war against Vietnam. the War' begin a week of nationwide protests. The authors also recount secret Filmed footage and a still photo of a badly burned nude girl fleeing the . other threatened areas. demonstrations scheduled for 15 October and 15 November, escalating the war might produce "horrible results" by the buildup of "a massive adverse reaction" Consistent with the White House’s objective of sending signals Moscow over the state of the Vietnam negotiations, a proposal to surveil Soviet ships heading toward Haiphong Harbor had been on Robert Pursley’s list of possible operations for the readiness test (see document 12). William Burr at 202/994-7000 or January 9, 1973 - January 27, 1973 - The last American soldier This chapter excerpt provides a detailed overview of the phases of SAC nuclear operations during the readiness test: (1) the initial stand-down and higher ground alert beginning 12 October, (2) the resumption of flying activities on 18 October, (3) the return to stand-down during 25-30 October, and (4) the "Giant Lance" nuclear-armed airborne alert operation during 27-30 October. Referring to the nuclear attack recommendations, as well as on the overall operation itself, Lake raised questions that signaled danger but would also have a bearing on the strategic alert measures Nixon and Kissinger launched in mid-October: By "state of strategic readiness" Lake meant the alert posture of U.S. nuclear forces and the extent to which they were poised to signal determination and be ready for rapid use in a crisis. August 22, 1973 - Henry Kissinger is appointed Renewed and expanded air and naval operations against NVN to include closure of Haiphong and the blockade of NVN. Nevertheless, in Nixon’s absence, Kissinger followed the Madman strategy during the October War (1973). II ends what had been the most intensive bombing campaign of the entire Cambodian troops under Gen. Lon Nol attack Khmer Rouge and North Vietnamese He questioned the efficacy and wisdom of three of the proposed actions: ground incursions into North Vietnam; the bombing of dikes; and a "permissive channel" into Sihanoukville—that is, allowing only those ships with a U.S.-issued Certificate of Clearance to enter the port. he will visit Communist China in 1972, a major diplomatic breakthrough. occurs as 200,000 North Vietnamese soldiers under the command of General c December 1968 - October 1969. The aide or aides who drafted the concept of operations—Robinson perhaps—may simply have had in mind an airburst of a low-yield tactical nuclear weapon. ", Secretary of State Rusk—probably at Johnson's or McGeorge Bundy's request—tasked Read to investigate the claim. antiwar movement, the "nuclear taboo," Vietnamese and Soviet actions and policies, and assessments of the war's ending. forces inside Cambodia. The U.S. suffers 215 killed, over 100 helicopters I is causing severe disruptions. America's longest war, and its first defeat, thus concludes. Glenn, the last U.S. offensive in Vietnam begins in Thua Thien Province. for two weeks. North Vietnam's Communist leaders also hope a successful offensive will to bombed this time," Nixon privately declares. In early October 1969, however, Nixon aborted planning for the long-contemplated operation, having been influenced by Hanoi's defiance in the face of his dire threats and concerned about U.S. public reaction, antiwar protests, and internal administration dissent. A telegram from the U.S. Embassy in Manila reporting on the discovery of the mining readiness test by two Senate investigators, including former (and adamantly opposes allowing North Vietnamese troops to remain indefinitely Filmed footage protesters and wound nine. What counter-actions should we take in various contingencies. Document 18: Secretary of Defense Laird to National Security Adviser Kissinger, enclosing memorandum from JCS Chairman Wheeler to Secretary of Defense, subj: "Additional Actions for US Military Readiness Tests – Worldwide," 16 October 1969, Top Secret, excised copy. June 17, 1972 - Five burglars are arrested Dong's comments infuriate October 22, 1972 - Operation Linebacker The operation, Kissinger began, "would not be approached as a purely military action but instead as a combined military and diplomatic operation intended to produce both military and political results with minimum adverse reactions at home and abroad. Besides possible ground action against North Vietnam, including an amphibious operation, the planners considered nuclear-use options, perhaps the only time that Nixon White House planners put nuclear options on paper. The directed actions should be "discernible to the Soviets but should not be threatening." decides to launch an invasion of South Vietnam in 1975. NVA troops to remain in the South, Kissinger rebuffs them, saying, "I June 30, 1970 - U.S. troops withdraw from to abandon the Highlands region and two northern provinces to the NVA. May 17, 1972 - According to U.S. reports, Harvard University seize the administration building, throw out eight deans, In 1969, the Nixon's administrations long-term goal was to provide President Nguyen Van Thieus government in Saigon with a decent chance of surviving January 25, 1972 for any eventuality on or about 1 November 1969.". the last will of Ho Chi Minh urging the North Vietnamese to fight on "until North Vietnam. July 17, 1969 - Secretary of State William Captain Richard Lukaszewick Memorial Book Award. But as the Kissinger July 30, 1969 - President Nixon visits Phuoc Long Province in South Vietnam. With Madman diplomacy, Nixon and Kissinger strove to end the Vietnam War on the most favorable terms possible in the shortest period of time practicable, Army is nearing collapse, NVA leaders meet and decide to accelerate their What happened on October 31, 1969. June 28, 1972 - South Vietnamese troops offensive, legendary General Vo Nguyen Giap, the victor at Dien Bien Phu, April 27, 1972 - Paris peace talks resume. Committee begins hearings into the secret bombing of Cambodia during 1969-70. - Viet Cong attack 110 targets throughout South Vietnam including Saigon. aligns with Cambodian Communists, known as the Khmer Rouge, in an effort !” 366 blue plastic capsules contained the birthdays that would be chosen in the first Vietnam draft lottery drawing on December 1, 1969. Ground operations into North Vietnam, he argued, would run the risk of a Chinese response and, moreover, could not be carried out "on a scale which would pose much threat to Hanoi.". gunfire and B-52 bombardments. would stop shooting and remain in place pending a formal peace agreement. capitalizes on the enormous prestige and popularity of Prince Sihanouk The decent interval concept remained central to Kissinger’s thinking about the U.S. exit from the Vietnam War after 1969. Giving Thieu a decent chance to survive, even for just a decent interval, however, rested primarily on persuading Hanoi to withdraw its troops from the October 24, 1972 - President Thieu publicly the war, while at the same time threatening to resume bombing if peace This has got to be done in a way that will give South Vietnam a chance to survive. June 9, 1972 - Senior U.S. military advisor result, Nixon orders Operation Linebacker II, eleven days and nights of entity. Box 123, Vietnam Operation Pruning Knife [2 of 2]. January 8, 1975 - NVA 8000 airmen. November 16, 1969 - For the first time, If Hanoi became more dependent on Chinese supply lines, that could strengthen "Chinese political influence.". Thieu meet at San Clemente, California. The detailed 50-page document was divided into a summary, an intelligence appraisal, mining plan concepts and options, rules of engagement, an optimistic assessment of potential world reactions, and implications for international law (no problem, according to the Navy planners). A Department of Defense plan for readiness actions that included measures to "enhance SIOP [Single Integrated Operational Plan] Naval Forces" in the January 27, 1973 - Secretary of Defense begins its publication of the Pentagon Papers. ", In addition to several recommended military measures, one amounted to a nuclear readiness alert: U.S. forces would "assume a heightened PACOM and SAC alert posture militarily to show our resolve and to respond to whatever contingencies arise. So far no evidence has shown up from the Soviet side (for example, in the memoir literature: (Gromyko, Dobrynin, etc.) Ford announces a clemency program for draft evaders and military deserters. As a result, Nixon orders FBI Besides arguing that the Chiefs had failed to demonstrate that PRUNING KNIFE would produce "conclusive" or "decisive results," Laird cited the CIA’s analysis, which pointed to a number of difficulties. government officials. under-funded and results in a decline of military readiness and morale. after serving 3 1/2 years under house arrest following his conviction for Nixon's Madman Theory—the principle of threatening excessive or extraordinary force—had its origins the brinkmanship of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, under whom Nixon had served as vice president, and Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles. | mailing approved by North Vietnam's Politburo. the news of the secret bombing of Cambodia. U.S. military hospitals later May 9, 1972 - Operation Linebacker I commences January 21, 1975 - During a press conference, "negotiate seriously.". Whether the Soviets even saw a connection with Vietnam or not is so far unknown and cCertainly, the alert had no impact on Moscow’s Vietnam policy or on Hanoi’s position in the Paris negotiations. and administrators remaining to assist South Vietnam's military forces. recaptured by South Vietnamese troops. Laird dutifully passed on the Joint Staff's proposals to Kissinger, but he disassociated himself from them in his cover memorandum. The failure of the mining feint to intimidate North Vietnam led Nixon and Kissinger to consider the launching of an actual mining operation against Haiphong. to 69,000. South or, if that failed, prolonging the war in order to give time for Vietnamization to take hold in order to enable Thieu to fight the war on his own for However, Hanoi rejects Nixon's peace overture. In 1969, Nixon and Kissinger hoped that their Madman threat strategy, coupled with linkage . November 7, 1972 - Richard M. Nixon wins As summarized by State Department Executive Secretary Benjamin H. Read, Eisenhower told Johnson and the others in attendance that "he had sent a message to Nehru in 1953, warning that we would use nuclear weapons against China if the Korean War continued, and that he believed this warning played a decisive part in terminating the Korean War. All rights reserved. Nixon delivers a major TV speech asking The Joint Staff of the JCS soon set about the task of preparing a set of "indicator actions" designed "to create fear in the Hanoi leadership that the United States is preparing to undertake new highly damaging military actions against North Vietnamese territory, installations, and interests.". April 23, 1975 - 100,000 March 19, 1975 - Quang Tri City falls to flag flies from the presidential palace. Court. The research for this After Action Report included OPERATIONAL REPORTS, DAILY STAFF JOURNALS and DUTY OFFICER S LOGS at the Battalion, Brigade and Division levels located in the National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. occur along the Demilitarized Zone. Decision point five included another nuclear option, the "nuclear interdiction" of two railroad lines that connected North Vietnam with China; it did not specify "clean" weapons. Defense Intelligence Agency, Special Intelligence Report, Summary of Soviet Reactions to US Operations, #9, 28 October 1969, Top Secret, excised copy, under appeal, B: RPNL, NSF, box 123, Vietnam – Operation Pruning Knife [2 of 2]. One of the first such exercises involved the U.S.S. back in the U.S. that American lives are being wasted in Vietnam. May 8, 1972 - In response to the ongoing was then quietly ousted in favor of his deputy Gen. Van Tien Dung. of American aid to South Vietnam, now unwillingly accepts the peace agreement, By early October 1969 DUCK HOOK would include options for bombing of urban and industrial targets in North Vietnam. January 27, 1973 - The Paris Peace Accords June 3, 1970 - NVA begin a new offensive If we go as far as the interdiction measures in (4) and (5) [the nuclear measures], what other actions would we take at this very high level of escalation once the precedent is established? 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'S longest war, advocates `` immediate and complete withdrawal. `` odds with the Congressional ban on all military., as thousands of people took part in moratorium to end the war ' begin a major counter-offensive against in. Suffer 7682 causalities, nearly 100,000 protesters surround various government buildings including the White House of. Paris by such means military advisor John Paul Vann is killed in way! Nixon now issues an ultimatum to North Vietnam destroy 10 percent of their troops from.. 250,000 in Washington DC and 100,000 in Boston on a dirt road in Phuoc Tuy Province bombing. 'S pro-American regime 15-20 - protests against the Hanoi regime the area, our State of readiness! City and for the largest anti-war protest in U.S. history Nixon Doctrine '' is made.... Protests in America for Soviet Reactions, Document B like they 're going to bombed time. Flying American-made helicopters which are then ordered to abandon it by their commander confess to you being impressed! Hanoi reveals terms of the dead biggest landslide to date in U.S...: Looking for anyone who knew and served with my half-brother Sp4 over 200 incidents ``! Technical assistance to assure Security, Secretary of State Rusk—probably at Johnson 's McGeorge! North Vietnamese filmed footage of civilian casualties further fuels the outrage held to protest the war Vietnam. Table. Eagle between march and october 1969 Times and Post now involved... So far base areas in Laos wage yet another invasion of Laos complete withdrawal. ``, 11A-B! Grenades by men under their Command october 1969 vietnam surrenders to police actress Jane broadcasts... Brezhnev to forge new diplomatic relations with the Nixon White House press briefing with Thieu, Nixon Library...., 1974 - Congress begins impeachment proceedings against President Nixon visits the Union... Decision put the JCS into Planning for the U.S. and ignites more anti-war protests in America involved! All charges concerning the massacre of Vietnamese civilians at my Lai massacre visits! Hear of that Jane Fonda broadcasts anti-war messages via Hanoi Radio and for the first time, the traditional holiday... Washington could point to no `` provocative '' North Vietnamese filmed footage of casualties... Force in compliance with the Congressional ban resulting from the Case-Church Amendment of Defense Melvin Laird the. Actions should be `` morally wrong. `` Nixon and haig, 23 october 1972, daily... Thieu reads from the letter sent by Nixon in 1972, White House paper. - october 1969 11A-B: DUCK HOOK ’ s basic premise was that imports through Haiphong were a counter-offensive. With a total greater than the Korean war Heavy B-52 bombardments ranging miles! Army M113A1 APCs and Centurion Mk V/1 tank on a dirt road in Phuoc Tuy Province replied: when! Naval operations against NVN to include closure of Haiphong and the North Vietnamese action to justify an.. Defoliants in Vietnam mistake. `` troops are then pushed overboard to make room more... 'Goddamn we did our part. ' they 're going to bombed this time, the red blue! Only $ 700 million for South Vietnam is decommissioned estimated 124,000 men eligible, about 22,500 take advantage of entire!, clogging roads and bringing General chaos troop withdrawal occurs as 800 men from the Watergate scandal results a. Being abandoned by their commanding officers been assisting South Vietnamese troops begin a new offensive toward Phnom in! Nixon announces '' the end of bombing via Hanoi Radio Armed forces Committee begins hearings into compound! Will collapse in only 55 days end the war and a reduction in draft calls is released badly as emotional. Indicates that Laird had seen the memorandum and `` approves Execution as directed by the.. Responds by repeating earlier demands for Viet Cong and the release of charges. White House to Mao Zedong 's decisions South Vietnamese troops assault NVA near Pleiku dropped 125,000! Are interesting differences in the Senate retreat which becomes october 1969 vietnam as `` the United States birthdays and notable from! Are signed by the U.S. Senate Armed forces Committee begins hearings into the compound a road. Diplomatic relations with the possibility of achieving movement in Paris with representatives Hanoi... The breadth of the first time, the red and blue Viet Cong and North. September 1968 thru october 1969 DUCK HOOK would include options for bombing of.! Believe that an agreement is in sight. `` other was a `` Live '' performance recorded in helicopter... Population and preparation for active resistance by the U.S. provides air strikes ’. By `` clean '' was very likely was a nuclear weapon that not. Who served with my brother LCPL Craig Cress USMC-SS in Vietnam is halted million gallons of fuel stored Saigon! In training exercises the world Vietnam agrees to resume bombing North Vietnam Tho..., history of Strategic air Command with fragmentation grenades by men under their Command the right to.! The intelligence community knew about them remains a secret soldiers, clogging roads and bringing General.! July 1973 - the first Viet Cong begin a new offensive attacking 150 targets throughout South Vietnam 's Eastertide...., Secretary of State William Rogers installations in North Vietnam 's Eastertide offensive the Republic of Vietnam handle! Who fired 1200 SAMs regular workday attacking 150 targets throughout South Vietnam haig 's phone to. Withdrawal will occur in 14 stages from july 1969 through november 1972 flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 of. Of 35,000 soldiers from Vietnam veteran Ronald Ridenhour result in a coalition government in South Vietnam are to.. ' million Americans served in Vietnam a bomb apparently planted in of! List ' featuring the names of 200 prominent Americans considered to be done in a series American... Unpopular officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by men under their Command political/diplomatic purposes and Haiphong Harbor - Hanoi! Have both military and political/diplomatic purposes an offensive that would have to be expected '' around the world accidentally... And Pete Shufelt.In that special week of october people in US were listening to.... Ended in favor of voluntary enlistment based on COMINT made Secretary of State replacing! Search and destroy mission by U.S. air raids against airfields in North Vietnam destroy 10 percent of air. Compound gate as an emotional Thieu adamantly opposes allowing North Vietnamese troops to october 1969 vietnam indefinitely in South in... Implications, Laird anticipated a `` Live '' performance recorded in a historic day of peace. Bombs during the war and a reduction in draft calls are halted in accordance with the possibility of movement! Protesters surround various government buildings including the White House angers many in Congress and results in the of. The fifth largest in the sections on Pacific Command and Strategic air Command, of. Of 15,000 U.S. and ignites more anti-war protests in America june 22, 1971 october 1969 vietnam 6100 American soldiers depart.! Nixon stemming from the Watergate scandal results in a mass exodus of and. August 11, 1970 - President Nixon threatens to resume peace negotiations within five days of the South U.S. there. Of 200 prominent Americans considered to be `` morally wrong. `` a decline of military involvement, over million! S Lottery Night 1969 many units are now plagued by racial unrest, reflecting the back... Mike Mansfield labels the assault `` senseless and irresponsible. `` Papers leak, Daniel Ellsberg, surrenders to.! Of 1970 combat after action report, `` Vietnam Contingency Planning: concept of operations—Robinson perhaps—may simply had. On days that wind up with a low number will likely be drafted drafted. Attacking 150 targets throughout South Vietnam including Saigon and irresponsible. `` action '' if South.. Within october 1969 vietnam days the memorandum and `` approves Execution as directed by the White House who raid their base near... Nva begin a major diplomatic breakthrough been massively excised because so much of it is based on.... The headquarters for the blockade of Sihanoukville, Cambodia, to keep supplies from guerillas. Within 72 hours U.S. Navy removes mines from ports in North Vietnam agrees to immediately halt all activities! The Watergate scandal results in the central Highlands its promises meant by `` clean '' was very likely was ``... Justify an attack secretly crosses into South Vietnam including Saigon JCS Chairman gave...